‘Vivaah’ is the puerly Sanskrit word recognizable to narrate a marriage present to vedic tradition. From the time of Grihas Sutra, Dharma Sutra and Smrits there are eight forms of marriage. Marriage is the bridge between a husband and a wife where they connect to each other binding their commitment, joins two families together create a strong bond between them. According to our historical research there are more than eight types of marriage.Aside from the eight forms of marriage established by the sastrakaras, were connected with custom and enjoyment of 18 people. Smriti perceived eight modes of marriage which are -
1. Brahma form of marriage
Most common form of marriage in india is brahma form. It is expressed an ordinary stage of social progress. The gift of the daughter, clothed and decked, to a man learned in the Vedas, whom her father voluntarily invites and respectfully receives, is the nuptial rite called “Brahma”. After grooms education and take over all the responsibilities the groom's family suggest him the suitable bride.
After that brides family enqueuing the grooms birthplace, occupation ,education, character and his act before bequeathing one’s daughter. There is no dowry ritual involved.
2. Daiva Marriage
Diva form marriage is different from the brahma form.Special traits like good character, scholarship in the Vedas or good family background of the bridegroom were not emphasized in selection
In Divas marriage the bride’s family rest for an appropriate suitor . She does not get any suiter in the specific time then her family to marry her to a priest who officiates over sacrifices.This type of marriage is inappropriate in Brahma marriage as it is degrading to women respect
3. Ársha Marriage
Arsha form of marriage indicated the rural stage of the Hindu society where cattle were considered indispensable. This form of marriage was also encouraged tby the Brahmins. Arsha defines Rishi or Sage in Sanskrit language .
The bride is married with Rishi in exchange for two cows or a cow and a bull.
This is just to show that a sage does not require extraordinary wealth. It usually happens when the bride’s family is not capable to handle the expenses of their daughter’s marriage.
This form of marriage is also considered illegal because it involves business like indicate women as an object.. One such being the marriage of sage Agastya with Lopamudra.
4. Prajapatya form Marriage:
In this form of marriage, the father unselfishly gives his daughter with due praised saying, distinctly: “May both of you perform together your civil and religious duties “You two be the partners for performing religious and civil duties.
This form of marriage, an eligible groom is with wealth and presents by the bride’s father to marry her daughter.
The Prajapatya form of marriage is a traditional form where the parental approval is needed and its mainly based on groom’s economic condition .It is also called as Kshatra form of marriage.
5. Asura Marriage
The example of Asura marriage is mentioned in the Ramayana that a fabulous amount of bride price was given to the guardian of Kaikeyi for her marriage with king Dasaratha Raja.
In the Asura form of marriage, the bride was given to the husband in award which is called bride-price. When the bridegroom, having given its much wealth as he can afford to the father or paternal agnate and the woman with herself, takes her for care as his bride ‘ it Is called the Asura Marriage.
It is like buying a product by paying a huge amount of money that is why it is not applicable in brahma marriage.
6. Gándharva Marriage
It is same as with modern-day love marriage . The most famous example is the marriage of Dushyanta and Shakuntala in Mahabharata.
In this form of marriage, the couple either lives together out of love or mutual consent or marry each other out of their own free will without the consent of their families.
The Gandharva form of marriage is the union of a man and a woman by mutual understanding.Besides, love, emotion or mutual consent were not acceptable in the Hindu society. Secondly, in the historical time , romantic attachment between partners could not develop due to the rare possibility of physical closeness
7. Rákshasa Marriage
In easy language the ‘Rakshasa’ form of marriage may be known as the girl is forcibly abducted by the groom by killing or defeating the bride’s family in battle. Manu teach , “The seizure of a maiden by force from her house while she weeps and calls for assistance, after her kinsmen and friends have been slain in battle or wounded, and their houses broken open, is the marriage styled Rakshasa” In the modern time this Rakshasa form of marriage has been illegal , and its practice is a punishable offence vide section 366 of IPC.
8. Paisácha Marriage
Paisacha marriage is known to be inferior or lowest form of marriage.
In this, the girl is kidnapped when she is asleep and unconscious . Not only that, she is also raped during sleep (due to intoxication).It is the worst form of marriage in hindu .
Now days Indian culture , admiring from the social prospect, three forms of Hindu marriage appear to be seen. They are the Brahma, Asura and Gandharva forms of marriage. The higher caste Hindus bless the Brahma form of marriage in the most cultured form. The Asura form of marriage is happen the lower castes and the Gandharva marriage is commonly in the youth culture.
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